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Alexander Dugin has 66 books on Goodreads with ratings. Alexander Dugin's most popular book is The Fourth Political Theory. Aleksandr Dugin's Foundations of GeopoliticsJohn B. Dunlop1. The Fourth Political Theory: Alexander Dugin, Dugin foresees that the Fourth Political Theory will use the tools and concepts of Read the.
Such a distorted view represents "the Atlanticist line masking itself as 'Russian nationalism'" Such a repudiation would be tantamount to national suicide" Deprived of an empire, Russians will "disappear as a nation" The sole viable course, in Dugin's view, is for Russians to rebound from the debacle of by recreating a great "supra-national empire," one in which ethnic Russians would occupy "a privileged position" The result of such a rebuilding effort would be "a giant continental state in the administration of which they [Russians] will play the central role" This ethnic model, Dugin notes, is quite similar to that of the former Soviet Union.
In order to facilitate the recreation of a vast Russian-dominated continental empire, Dugin advocates the unleashing of Russian nationalist sentiment, but of a specific type. Religious sentiment, Dugin urges, should be placed front and center: "Russians should realize that they are Orthodox in the first place; [ethnic] Russians in the second place; and only in the third place, people" There is a need, Dugin insists, for the "total churchification" of Russians, for the Russian nation to become viewed simply as "the Church" Such an emphasis, he believes, should--together with a persistent focus on the glorious past and bright future of the Russian nation--help bring about the "demographic upsurge" so desperately needed by Russians today.
Economic incentives by themselves will prove insufficient to promote such an upsurge One "radical" slogan, Dugin concludes, must be consistently put forward: "The nation is everything; the individual is nothing" This slogan encapsulates one of Dugin's most cherished beliefs. Gutting Atlanticism Employing the "strategy of the Anaconda" a term borrowed by Dugin from inter-war German geopoliticians used in reference to Britain , the United States and its close allies are seen as exerting unrelenting pressure on all Eurasian coastal zones , Following precepts enunciated by Francis Fukuyama among others, the United States seeks to implant its own political and economic model throughout the globe Moreover, following the prescriptions of Paul Wolfowitz, the United States attempts to reduce Russia's role to that of a lowly "regional power" In cynical fashion, the United States wants to "transform Russia into an 'ethnic reservation' so that it can receive full control over the world" How is a revived Eurasian--Russian empire to bring about "the geopolitical defeat of the U.
An appropriate response to the looming Atlanticist threat, Dugin contends, is for the renascent Eurasian-Russian empire to direct all of its powers short of igniting a hot war , as well as those of the remainder of humanity, against the Atlanticist Anaconda.
The anti-Americanism of the Japanese, "who remember well the nuclear genocide and the disgrace of political occupation," must be unleashed, as well as the fervent anti- Americanism of fundamentalist Muslim Iranians , On a global scale, Dugin declares, "the main 'scapegoat' will be precisely the U.
One way in which Russia will be able to turn other states against Atlanticism will be an astute use of the country's raw material riches. To induce the Anaconda to release its grip on the coastline of Eurasia, it must be attacked relentlessly on its home territory, within its own hemisphere, and throughout Eurasia.
Within the United States itself, there is a need for the Russian special services and their allies "to provoke all forms of instability and separatism within the borders of the United States it is possible to make use of the political forces of Afro-American racists " It would also make sense simultaneously to support isolationist tendencies in American politics" He believes that this could happen unexpectedly, as occurred with the sudden collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR.
Expelled from the shores of Eurasia, the United States would then be required to "limit its influence to the Americas" With regard to the future of Europe, Dugin writes: "The task of Moscow is to tear Europe away from the control of the U.
Eurasia needs a united, friendly Europe" In advocating this path, Dugin appears to be influenced by the writings of the European New Right, which from the s on, argued for "the strict neutrality of Europe and its departure from NATO" The basis of the Moscow-Berlin axis, Dugin writes, will be "the principle of a common enemy [that is, the United States]" In exchange for cooperating with Russia in this project, Dugin proposes that Germany be given back "Kaliningrad oblast' Eastern Prussia " As a result of a Grand Alliance between Russia and Germany, the two countries will divvy up the territories lying between them into de facto spheres of dominance.
There is to be no "sanitary cordon. Russia and Germany together, he insists, "must decide all disputed questions together and in advance" The integration of swaths of Western and Central European territory into a German sphere of dominance will be encouraged directly and abetted by Eurasia-Russia.
The formation of a "Franco- German bloc" especially is to be supported Germany's influence likely will spread to the south--to Italy and Spain Only Britain, "an extraterritorial floating base of the U.
Moving eastward, Dugin proposes offering Germany de facto political dominance over most Protestant and Catholic states located within Central and Eastern Europe. The "unstable" state of Finland, which "historically enters into the geopolitical space of Russia" is seen as an exception In this instance, Dugin proposes that Finland be combined together with the Karelian Autonomous Republic of the Russian Federation into a single ethnoterritorial formation "with maximal cultural autonomy, but with strategic integration into the Eurasian bloc" The northern regions of Finland, Dugin adds, should be excised and donated to Murmansk oblast'.
On the subject of the Baltic states, Dugin proposes that Estonia be recognized as lying within Germany's sphere. A "special status," on the other hand, should be accorded to both Latvia and Lithuania, which suggests that they are to be allocated to the Eurasian-Russian sphere. Poland, too, is to be granted such a "special status" With regard to the Balkans, Dugin assigns "the north of the Balkan peninsula from Serbia to Bulgaria" to what he terms the "Russian South" In Dugin's opinion, all of the states of the "Orthodox collectivist East" with time will seek to establish binding ties to "Moscow the Third Rome," thus rejecting the snares of the "rational-individualistic West" , In similar fashion, Moldova is seen as a part of what Dugin calls "the Russian South" On the key question of Ukraine, Dugin underlines: "Ukraine as a state has no geopolitical meaning.
It has no particular cultural import or universal significance, no geographic uniqueness, no ethnic exclusiveness" And he adds that, "[T]he independent existence of Ukraine especially within its present borders can make sense only as a 'sanitary cordon'" However, as we have seen, for Dugin all such "sanitary cordons" are inadmissible.
Dugin speculates that three extreme western regions of Ukraine--Volynia, Galicia, and Trans- Carpathia--heavily populated with Uniates and other Catholics, could be permitted to form an independent "Western Ukrainian Federation.
With the exception of these three western regions, Ukraine, like Belorussia, is seen as an integral part of Eurasia-Russia. At one point in his book, Dugin confides that all arrangements made with "the Eurasian bloc of the continental West," headed by Germany, will be merely temporary and provisional in nature.
As in the case of Germany, Japan is to be offered an imperial Grand Bargain. Dugin recommends that the Kuriles be restored to Japan as Kaliningrad is to be restored to Germany For future expansion purposes, Japan is to be encouraged to impose "its own 'new order,' which it planned to carry out in the s, in the Pacific Ocean" Dugin notes that another important ally of Eurasia-Russia will be India, which, like Japan, will be invited to join Russia in efforts to contain and perhaps dismember China.
The two Koreas and Vietnam also will be invited to participate in this effort Mongolia is seen as constituting "a strategic ally of Russia" and is to be absorbed directly into Eurasia-Russia Once it rejected Mao's healthy path of "peasant socialism," China set about instituting economic reforms that have been achieved "at the price of a deep compromise with the West" China, in Dugin's perverse view, verges upon being an Atlanticist factotum.
At several points in his book, Dugin gives vent to a fear that China might at some time in the future "undertake a desperate thrust to the North--into Kazakhstan and Eastern Siberia" In a section titled "The Fall of China," Dugin directly warns: "China is the most dangerous geopolitical neighbor of Russia to the South" China, he maintains, is a danger to Russia both "as a geopolitical base for Atlanticism and by itself, as a country with heightened demographic compactness in quest of 'no man's land'" Because of the threat to Russia's vital geopolitical interests represented by China, Dugin holds that the PRC must be dismantled.
He underlines: "Tibet-Sinkiang-Mongolia-Manchuria taken together comprise a security belt of Russia" Eurasia-Russia must seek, at all costs, to promote "the territorial disintegration, splintering and the political and administrative partition of the [Chinese] state" As "geopolitical compensation" for the loss of its northern regions, China, Dugin recommends, should be offered development "in a southern direction--Indochina except Vietnam , the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia" These areas constitute China's appropriate sphere of dominance.
It should be noted that in the lengthy postscript section appended to the version of Foundations of Geopolitics, Dugin reaffirms his belief in the need for Eurasia-Russia to effect a dismembering of China The book uses the term "Moscow—Berlin axis".
Both countries have a "firm anti-Atlanticist tradition". Southern Finland will be combined with the Republic of Karelia and northern Finland will be "donated to Murmansk Oblast ".
Ukraine should not be allowed to remain independent, unless it is cordon sanitaire , which would be inadmissible. The alliance is based on the "traditional character of Russian and Islamic civilization". Iran is a key ally. Material from this and the next section is derived from R.
Google Scholar 6. Google Scholar 7.
Google Scholar 8. Gumilyov, Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere, p. CrossRef Google Scholar Google Scholar Political biographies of Dugin may be found in Laruelle , pp.